In the team sport of innovation, the quality of interaction between teammates regulates the speed of discovery. If a team is healthy, the pattern of exchange will be free-flowing, candid, and energized. If it’s unhealthy, the team will retreat into silence, superficial niceness, or some combination of the two.
Much of the know-how required for innovation comes from the bottom of the organization — in other words, from local knowledge. Yet many non-management employees consider innovation outside the scope of their jobs. Even when they want to participate, they don’t because the organization’s tacit norms discourage it. The pressure to execute and remove variance overwhelms the motivation to innovate and introduce variance.
For example, an employee at a large health care organization said to me, “If you’re new in this organization, you have to listen for a year before the organization will listen to you.” That’s a cultural barrier to entry that silences a team and chokes innovation. If that norm is perpetuated, the entire organization will be hobbled in its creative output.
In my research with hundreds of teams during the past decade, I’ve identified a cultural barrier that — perhaps more than any other — stifles innovation in its earliest stage: authority bias. Authority bias is the tendency to overvalue opinions from the top of the hierarchy and undervalue opinions from the bottom, and it eventually turns into exaggerated deference to the chain of command. Organizations tend to give the most credibility to ideas, suggestions, or points of view based on source rather than substance. In fact, source becomes a proxy for substance because we reasonably expect more competency as we move up the hierarchy. But this creates natural disincentives for those at the bottom to raise their voices. The greater the power distance, the higher the perceived risk of speaking up. Thus, the grander the perch, the rarer the feedback.
Unleashing bottom-up innovation is largely a matter of neutralizing this side effect of hierarchy. But how can organizations create a true idea-meritocracy in which they become more agnostic to title, position, and authority and truly debate issues on their merits? How do they achieve cultural flatness: a condition in which power distance or structure does not restrict collaboration or the flow of information?
Here are three practical steps leaders can take to neutralize authority bias, embrace cultural flatness, and unleash bottom-up innovation.
Grant irrevocable participation rights.
First, understand the distinction between participation rights and decision rights. Participation rights refer to a person’s opportunity to participate in discussion, analysis, and advocacy concerning ideas, issues, and questions. Decision rights, on the other hand, refer to the authority of a group or individual to make a decision about an idea, issue, or question. Make it clear to both new and existing team members that participation rights are embedded in every role.
Here’s how: First, clarify the difference between participation rights and decision rights. Second, acknowledge that in the past, participation rights were often granted based on criteria such as seniority, time-in-grade, title, experience, and formal status. Explain that your team doesn’t subscribe to this norm and that all employees are granted irrevocable participation rights — provided they demonstrate respect, basic contextual understanding, and good faith. Third, provide opportunities for team members to exercise their participation rights based on relevant issues, questions, or potential courses of action, and then explicitly invite all team members to weigh in.
This of course is easier said than done. Many organizations are dripping with implicit bias, which curtails the participation rights of new and/or underrepresented and marginalized employees. In practical terms, this means that employees in these groups may require reassurance and additional efforts to create psychological safety in the process. They may be slow to respond, but when they see that equal access to participate in the process is fair and consistent, they will gradually opt in.
Finally, cultivate the expectation that innovation is embedded in every job description. Reinforce that innovation is primarily a social process that relies on collaboration.
Practice exploratory inquiry.
The status quo becomes ingrained over time as our thoughts about it harden into dogma and we become attached to it. But the homogenization of thought is the enemy of innovation.
Innovation by its very nature is disruptive of the status quo, so challenging it is a highly vulnerable behavior. Because it carries a high degree of personal risk, most employees conduct careful threat detection before engaging in exploratory inquiry and potentially deviating from the status quo. Also, keep in mind that, for most people, evaluating performance based on data feels more secure than exploring possibilities based on assumptions and predictions. So how do you get over the discomfort associated with exploration?
Practice the disruptive question sequence. This three-step process is a quick and effective way to get the ball rolling and accelerate bottom-up innovation:
- First, ask, “Why?” Why do we do it this way?
- Second, ask, “What if?” What if we tried this instead?
- Third, ask, “How?” How might we do it differently?
Ensure that the process is non-judgmental. Generate and ideate without editing, critiquing, limiting, or censoring.
Finally, once you teach the disruptive question sequence, don’t expect the process to run itself. Your team needs practice. The best way to develop the skill is to run a series of disruptive question sequence sessions with your team with assigned topics. For example, I worked with a marketing team recently that held a session to address its lead-generating process. The leader was careful to model the three-step process and remove every incentive that might motivate her team members to be silent or superficially nice. The dialogue was hard-hitting, yet honest and respectful.
Normalize constructive dissent.
Finally, for employees to develop skills across the companion disciplines of execution and innovation and seamlessly toggle back and forth between them, normalize constructive dissent. Team members must be given explicit permission, and even the obligation, to disagree.
The thinking that causes employees to stay away from innovation goes something like this: “Innovation requires exploration, exploration leads to failure, failure leads to punishment. I’ll keep quiet.” Remember, silence is expensive for organizations. It drives out excellence and ushers in mediocrity. When it’s not safe, people play it safe. So how do you normalize dissent?
Criticize your own ideas and decisions in public.
Think out loud with your team and publicly poke holes in your own thinking and behavior. Invite others to join you. For example, one leader said to her team, “As you know, my fingerprints are all over this decision. I own that, but here we are six months later and it looks like I made the wrong decision. I need your help to think this through.”
Celebrate dissent and invite more.
The most significant moments of truth in culture formation happen when a team member takes an interpersonal risk “on stage.” In one team I observed, a team member voiced the unpopular opinion that a proposed decision was a bad idea. Creating a wave of cultural flatness, the team leader responded, “That’s fantastic. I’m excited to learn why you feel that way.” Then he listened carefully and solicited more dissenting views.
Never a purely intellectual process, dissent is frequently charged with emotion. At its root, dissent is most often an intellectual clash. On the other end of an opinion, though, is a human being coming to the table with some mixture of confidence and fear. People draw different conclusions from the same data sets all the time, and that’s why it’s hard. You can tell people to hold their opinions lightly, but it rarely works until they come to understand alternative viewpoints with empathy. Empathy is compassionate curiosity about another person’s journey from data to conclusions. What data do they have? What assumptions did they make? What do they care about and why? Finally, how did they reach their conclusions? Injecting empathy into the discussion can turn confrontation into fruitful collaboration.
. . .
Remember, bottom-up innovation relies on the circulation of local knowledge, and the circulation of local knowledge relies on cultural flatness. Too much deference to the chain of command will bottleneck that circulation. To create cultural flatness and unleash bottom-up innovation, grant irrevocable participation rights, practice exploratory inquiry, and normalize constructive dissent.
How to Build Upon the Legacy of Your Family Business — and Make It Your Own
Founded by Henry Ford in 1903, the Ford Motor Company rocketed to success by mass-producing reliable, low-priced automobiles. When Henry’s son, Edsel, took the helm in 1918, he championed a different strategy for a new era. He sought to replace the Model T — iconic but outdated — with a more modern design geared to high-end and foreign markets, and later embraced compromise with labor amid the suffering of the Great Depression.
But Henry could not let go of Ford’s origin story, undermining his son at every turn. The result was declining sales and years of labor strife that left the company on the brink of collapse by the 1940s. It was only the efforts of Edsel’s son, the more forceful Henry Ford II, that saved the auto giant from bankruptcy.
In family enterprise, generational transitions often pit one narrative against another: tradition versus innovation, continuity versus change. Indeed, when older generations craft painstaking succession plans or build elaborate constraints into trusts or shareholder agreements, they are really constructing a story: about the values and life lessons that helped them succeed, and that they hope will do the same for their children. Younger generations, however, must often adapt this narrative to their own goals and values, along with the changing world around them.
Failure to reconcile conflicting narratives can spell ruin for a family business or the waste of a financial legacy, as it nearly did for the Fords. To avoid this fate, families need to think differently about the stories they tell.
The value of critical distance
Conventional wisdom holds that family heritage, like wealth and reputation, “belongs” to the older generation. In this telling, succeeding generations are merely stewards or caretakers. They are given an inheritance or entrusted with the family business — and then charged with not frittering it away or screwing it up. Framed this way, a legacy can feel more like a burden than a gift.
Of course, it’s not as simple as that. Research suggests that younger generations do value their family heritage, especially as a source of traditions more motivating than money alone, and are motivated to preserve it. According to a 2021 survey of 300 Canadian business owners by the Family Enterprise Foundation, nearly 90% of next-generation family business leaders believe it is important to preserve a legacy.
But younger generations also want something more from that heritage: a sense of purpose, a collective identity for the family, the seeds of new entrepreneurial gambits, permission to go their own way. And as our own research shows, next-generation leaders are uniquely positioned to find what they are looking for in the family story.
Older generations often identify closely with the family or the family business, which can actually obstruct key learnings from the past. Eager to protect the family’s reputation, they may downplay scandal or setback rather than learn from it. By contrast, our analysis of 94 family businesses shows that younger generations tend to have more critical distance from the family story. This lets them grapple with its difficult chapters and respond appropriately, whether by making amends for past misdeeds or by reforming business practices going forward. It also frees them to draw insights from their story that can fuel innovation and sustainability.
Legacy as a source of purpose
How, then, can the next generation build on their family legacy while recasting it as their own? Our research and experience suggest four strategies for next-generation leaders.
1. Seek out role models in the family story.
Some next-generation leaders hesitate to embark on risky new ventures outside the traditional scope of the family business. Locating exemplars in the family story can legitimize a new way forward.
One third-generation CEO used this approach to advance his vision for a more sustainable enterprise. Fredo Arias-King, head of Mexican pine resin producer Pinosa Group, had lamented the disappearance of Mexico’s ancient pine forests that threatened both the industry and the communities that depend on it. Then he stumbled onto the published speeches of his grandfather, company founder José Antonio Arias Álvarez, who had preached environmental stewardship. “I don’t think he could have known just how devastated the forest would eventually become,” said Arias-King, “but somehow my grandfather knew that planting trees would become extremely important.”
Affirmed by his grandfather’s words, Arias-King helped found Ejido Verde, a nonprofit that would later become an independent, for-profit enterprise. By making no-interest loans to farmers and communities, with pine resin as the means of repayment, the organization promotes reforesting through new pine plantations.
2. Forge an identity beyond the founder-entrepreneur.
It’s easy to revere the family’s wealth creator. For the two adult grandchildren of one founder-entrepreneur — a private equity pioneer who rose from poverty to become one of America’s richest people — that was the problem. They wanted their own children, beneficiaries of a generation-skipping trust, to know the person behind the legacy that would pass to them. So they engaged one of us (John Seaman) to probe beyond the classic rags-to-riches tale they had heard growing up.
The founder, they learned, was a gifted yet deeply troubled man. This more nuanced understanding enabled the two generations to have a frank conversation about the issues raised by their ancestor’s life: the obligations of a business to its workers and communities; the consequences of untreated mental illness; and the unfair burden often shouldered by women in wealthy families.
This conversation, in turn, led members of the fourth generation, all in their twenties, to rethink their roles in the family enterprise. One set aside her qualms about joining the family business and put herself on a path to succeed her father as president, but with a determination to nudge the company’s private equity portfolio toward impact investing. Another resolved to pursue her own entrepreneurial dreams outside of the business, rooted in progressive values that were in stark contrast with her great-grandfather’s. Still another joined the board of the family foundation, where she helped steer its grant-making toward her generation’s individual passions.
By seeing their founder-entrepreneur in human terms, the family’s younger generation was able to move beyond hero worship to forge their own identities — which promised to make them responsible owners and stewards of their ancestor’s wealth and the business that created it.
3. Reckon with past wrongs to find a new path forward.
Many families have skeletons in the closet — scandal or wrongdoing they have long concealed or downplayed. (Henry Ford’s history of antisemitism and violent confrontations with unions are examples of this.) The willingness to confront these darker chapters, it turns out, can be a powerful motivation.
That was the case for the Reimann family, owners of consumer goods conglomerate JAB Holding Company and one of Germany’s richest families. The three adult children of Albert Reimann Jr., who ran the company in the 1930s and 1940s, knew they had been born of their father’s affair with an employee, Emilie Landecker. They also knew that Emilie’s Jewish father, Alfred, had been murdered by the Nazis. But it was not until 2019, when they commissioned research on the company, that a more sinister secret emerged: their father and paternal grandfather were themselves ardent believers in Nazi race theory who abused forced laborers.
It was the younger generation — Albert Jr.’s grandchildren — who were most adamant about reckoning with this secret. “When I read of the atrocities…sanctioned by my grandfather, I felt like throwing up,” recalled Martin Reimann. “I cannot claim that I was very interested in politics before…But after what happened, I changed my mind.”
At the insistence of Martin’s generation, the Reimanns paid compensation to former forced laborers and their families. But they did not stop there. They refocused their family foundation on combating antisemitism and strengthening democratic institutions. They also renamed the foundation in honor of Alfred Landecker, making him the narrative driver behind the more fundamental change they sought. Far from an isolated act of corporate atonement, then, this was an attempt by the next generation to use lessons from their family heritage to build a more just future.
4. Leverage the family story as a source of competitive advantage.
For some family business entrepreneurs, the next venture can begin with a step back. So it was for British restaurateurs (and sisters) Helen and Lisa Tse, whose family heritage empowered their rise.
Their grandmother, Lily Kwok, had emigrated from Hong Kong in 1956 and settled in Manchester, where she and her daughter Mabel built one of Britain’s first Chinese restaurants. But the business eventually went bankrupt, the victim of racism and Chinese gangs.
The story might have ended there. Instead, Helen and Lisa picked up the threads of their family narrative and carried it forward. Abandoning successful professional careers, they established their own Manchester restaurant, Sweet Mandarin, in 2004. But the restaurant only took off when Helen published a best-selling memoir about her grandmother. With this narrative platform, the sisters branched out into other endeavors, like cookbooks and cookery classes, tied to their own life stories.
For the Tse sisters, family heritage proved to be a source of competitive advantage. By recovering an immigrant’s tale with universal appeal, they gained acceptance outside of their own ethnic communities. And by situating themselves in an entrepreneurial tradition spanning three generations, they created a sense of longevity that evoked quality and trustworthiness, even as they also innovated new products alongside recipes inherited from their grandmother.
. . .
Family legacy is not a monologue; it’s a dialogue, a collective story that belongs to the whole family. When families think of legacy in these terms, they empower younger generations to harness that story to their own purposes, drawing strength from their elders. Legacy, in short, becomes not a burden but a blessing — one that can help families sustain wealth and purpose long into the future.
Want to Succeed as an Entrepreneur? 14 Traits to Cultivate Now
If you had to choose one trait that you believed was the most necessary in order to succeed as an entrepreneur, what would it be and why? How can aspiring entrepreneurs cultivate it?
These answers are provided by Young Entrepreneur Council (YEC), an invite-only organization comprised of the world’s most successful young entrepreneurs. YEC members represent nearly every industry, generate billions of dollars in revenue each year, and have created tens of thousands of jobs. Learn more at yec.co.
1. The Ability to Problem-Solve
The one trait I would say is the most important to entrepreneurs is the ability to creatively problem-solve. Sometimes, solutions to business problems aren’t obvious and you have to find an out-of-the-box solution. That can be a real challenge because most people are taught to color within the lines.
You need courage, resolve and strength of character to withstand the ebbs, flows and failures that lead to successful business. The best way to get this is through experience. I’ve seen a lot of young entrepreneurs with more grit than their older counterparts, especially when they had customer service jobs and worked their way up the ladder to experience different seats in the company.
One of the most essential traits an entrepreneur can possess is flexibility. You need to be able to change your approach in response to market conditions, customer feedback and what any partners or investors want at any given time. Being flexible also means looking at “failure” as a signal to make changes rather than as a permanent obstacle.
Aspiring entrepreneurs should be fearless. It’s fear that often prevents you from grabbing new opportunities, as new entrepreneurs are unable to decide what’s best for them or how a particular decision would affect them. Well, you won’t know unless you try. So, be quick with your decisions. Preparedness is great and all, but if you’re afraid to make a move, someone else will — and will likely succeed.
To be successful as an entrepreneur, you need to focus on developing your social skills. When you have strong social skills, it becomes easier for you to build strong relationships with your customers, investors or anyone you think is important to your business. Good social skills make you a better communicator and help you make others feel secure so they connect with you on a deeper level.
One trait you need to succeed as an entrepreneur is determination. You’ll encounter people who don’t like your idea. There will be times when clients or investors reject you. Your first project idea may never see the light of day. You need to have the drive to move past these unfortunate situations if you want to find success.
Decisiveness is the main trait any successful entrepreneur needs to cultivate. From making decisions about the budget or day-to-day communication, maintaining the ability to decide and decide quickly remains imperative. I use mental models like Occam’s razor to run my life. For example, when presented with two options, I choose the simplest and I get a lot of significant work done.
8. A Realistic Mindset
Be realistic! An entrepreneur’s career is full of ups and downs, which are part of the learning process — and that’s a fact. Keeping your feet on the ground will save you much frustration when things don’t go the way you want. Instead, learn your lessons and keep moving. This will also help you to consider and prepare for multiple scenarios while adjusting along the way.
In order to be an entrepreneur, you must have some moxie. Being outspoken, direct, resilient and having the ability to persevere is something that most entrepreneurs have in common. You have moxie if you can get up after failing. Aspiring entrepreneurs can cultivate it by focusing on confidence. Stand up for what you believe in and don’t let others’ opinions or perceptions get in your way.
10. The Ability to Follow Long-Term Plans
The ability to follow and execute on a long-term plan — meaning multiple years — without being sidetracked by mirages along the way or discouraged by inevitable ups and downs is so important. This requires you to learn multiple skills, including attention to detail, deep work and strategic vision (as opposed to tunnel vision, which trips up many entrepreneurs).
11. A Willingness to Keep Learning
If you want to succeed as an entrepreneur, you should have an open mind toward learning. It’s important for you to realize that learning is an ongoing process. It can help you develop new skills that in turn can help you stay ahead of your competitors at all times.
12. A Self-Reflective Mind
One trait that can help aspiring entrepreneurs succeed is self-reflection. Embracing your mistakes and learning from them is the only way an entrepreneur can grow and be better than ever before. However, one can’t cultivate this skill by enrolling in a particular program. You have to have an open mind, give yourself the freedom to make mistakes and foster the courage to learn from them.
Resilience is one of the most important traits you can develop as an entrepreneur. The journey is going to have high highs and low lows, and it will be your ability to push through and persevere during this time that will be the difference between success and failure. To develop resilience, develop a positive mindset, build a strong support system, understand your purpose and look after yourself.
14. The Ability to Thrive on Ambiguity
The cornerstone of entrepreneurial success is in the ability to accept and thrive on ambiguity. I have found that navigating the unpredictable landscape of business ventures requires you to possess a flexible mindset that can accommodate constant change and capitalize on emerging opportunities. Always stay updated with the latest developments and treat every change as an opportunity to grow.
The Art of Risk-Taking: Lessons from Successful Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurship is a high-risk endeavor. Starting a new business takes bravery, resilience, and a willingness to accept risks. Many successful entrepreneurs attribute their success to calculated risks and pushing themselves outside their comfort zones.
In this article, we will explore the art of risk-taking and the lessons we can learn from successful entrepreneurs.
1. Understand the Importance of Risk-Taking
Taking risks is an essential component of entrepreneurship. It is tough to develop and produce anything new without taking risks. Risk-taking is necessary for growth and progress, as successful entrepreneurs recognize. They also recognize that not every risk will pay off, but the potential rewards make the effort worthwhile.
2. Do Your Research
Before taking any risks, it is important to do your research. Successful entrepreneurs understand the importance of gathering as much information as possible before making a decision. This includes researching the market, competition, and potential customers. By doing your research, you can make informed decisions and minimize your risks.
3. Network Effectively
Networking is an essential part of entrepreneurship. Successful entrepreneurs understand the importance of building relationships with potential investors, customers, and other entrepreneurs. They attend events and conferences, participate in industry groups, and use social media to expand their network and create new opportunities.
4. Stay Committed
Entrepreneurship is a long and challenging journey. Successful entrepreneurs understand the importance of staying committed to their goals and vision, even when faced with obstacles and setbacks. They stay focused on their end goal and are willing to put in the time and effort necessary to achieve it.
5. Collaborate with Others
Entrepreneurship is often a team effort. Successful entrepreneurs understand the value of collaborating with others and building strong partnerships. They seek out individuals who bring complementary skills and expertise to the table and work together to achieve a shared vision.
6. Surround Yourself with Supportive People
Entrepreneurship can be a lonely journey. It is important to surround yourself with supportive people who believe in you and your vision. Successful entrepreneurs understand the value of having a support system and seek out mentors, advisors, and other entrepreneurs who can offer guidance and encouragement.
7. Set Realistic Goals
Taking risks is essential for entrepreneurship, but it is important to set realistic goals. Successful entrepreneurs understand the importance of setting achievable goals and breaking them down into smaller, more manageable steps. By setting realistic goals, entrepreneurs can reduce the risk of failure and stay motivated throughout the journey.
8. Stay Flexible
Entrepreneurship is a constantly evolving journey. Successful entrepreneurs understand the importance of staying flexible and adapting to changing circumstances. They are open to new ideas and are willing to pivot when necessary to stay ahead of the curve.
9. Learn from Feedback
Feedback is a valuable tool for entrepreneurs. Successful entrepreneurs seek out feedback from customers, mentors, and advisors and use it to refine their ideas and improve their products or services. They understand that feedback is not a personal attack, but rather an opportunity to grow and improve.
10. Take Care of Yourself
Entrepreneurship can be a stressful and demanding journey. It is important to take care of yourself both physically and mentally. Successful entrepreneurs prioritize their health and well-being and make time for self-care activities such as exercise, meditation, and spending time with loved ones. By taking care of themselves, entrepreneurs can stay energized and focused throughout their entrepreneurial journey.
11. Take Action
Successful entrepreneurs do not let fear hold them back. They take action and move forward, even when they are unsure of the outcome. They understand that taking action is the only way to achieve their goals and make their vision a reality.
12. Take Calculated Risks
While taking risks is important, successful entrepreneurs also know the importance of taking calculated risks. They carefully assess the potential risks and rewards before making a decision, and have a backup plan in case things don’t go as expected.
13. Trust Your Gut
While research is important, successful entrepreneurs also trust their gut instincts. They understand that sometimes you have to take a leap of faith and trust your intuition. Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple, once said, “Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become.”
14. Embrace Failure
Taking risks inevitably leads to failure at times. Successful entrepreneurs understand that failure is not the end, but rather an opportunity to learn and grow. They embrace failure and use it as a chance to improve and refine their ideas.
The art of risk-taking is a critical component of entrepreneurship. Successful entrepreneurs understand the importance of taking risks, doing their research, trusting their instincts, embracing failure, taking action, and surrounding themselves with supportive people.
Aspiring entrepreneurs can boost their chances of success and make their entrepreneurial aspirations a reality by adhering to these guidelines.
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