Over the last few years, the development of blockchain technology brought us new types of digital assets such as stablecoins and cryptocurrencies. These innovations offer the foundations for building new payment rails that can move value across the globe not only in real-time but also at a much lower cost. Unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, stablecoins are significantly less volatile as they are typically pegged to a fiat currency such as the U.S. dollar. Stablecoins also pushed governments to accelerate their exploration of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). While cryptocurrencies rely on decentralized networks for their operations, CBDCs would run on public sector infrastructure and represent a direct liability of the central bank — essentially “digital cash.”
There’s major potential here: digital assets and cryptocurrencies can support new services and create more competition in financial services. For one, they promise lower-cost payments for both domestic and cross-border transfers. They can also facilitate real-time payments, overcoming a significant shortcoming of the U.S. payment system. Moreover, these new assets support programmability, which can be used for conditional payments and more complex applications such as escrow.
At the same time, these technologies — and how they threaten traditional financial intermediaries — has ignited a heated debate. For example, a recent, widely anticipated paper by the Federal Reserve Board acknowledges the significant benefits of digital currencies, but also raises concerns around privacy, operational, cybersecurity, and financial stability risks. Similarly, Gary Gensler, Chair of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, recently nearly doubled his crypto enforcement staff to crack down on what he calls the “wrongdoing in the crypto markets.” The recent collapse of UST, Terra’s Stablecoin — one of the largest stablecoins — illustrates how a failure in one of these systems can cascade throughout the crypto ecosystem. While many stablecoins derive their value from being fully backed by reserves, that was not the case for UST, which instead relied on an algorithm and a second currency, Luna, for stability.
While recent events underscore that the risks cryptocurrencies entail cannot be ignored, it is also clear that the status quo does not provide a satisfactory answer. The question is who carries the burden of an expensive, outdated, and slow payment system. This article surfaces the potential impact on small and medium businesses, which embed significant consequences for economic growth and stability.
Small businesses — including restaurants, plumbers, and dry cleaners — play a critical role in our economy. They employ roughly half of all working Americans, amounting to more than 60 million jobs. They created 65% of net new jobs from 2000 through 2019, represent 97.5% of all exporting firms in the U.S., and account for 32% of known exported value. Moreover, small businesses are also an essential vehicle for intergenerational mobility and social inclusion, offering upward mobility and economic opportunity, particularly for underrepresented groups such as minorities and immigrants.
Small businesses are also finding new ways to reach consumers outside their local communities through digital platforms such as Shopify and Amazon, a distribution channel that was vital for them during the pandemic to counter the decline in retail sales.
Nevertheless, they have largely been ignored during the debate over digital currencies. While policymakers, economists, and government officials highlight the importance of ensuring the resilience and growth of small businesses, the way they could benefit from better and more competitive payments infrastructure is almost entirely overlooked.
The Financial Fragility of Small Businesses
Most small businesses operate with razor-thin cash buffers. The typical small business only holds enough cash to last less than a month. This leads to significant vulnerability to economic fluctuations, as illustrated by their collapse during the 2008 financial crisis and, more recently, the Covid-19 crisis. The latter carried devastating consequences for small businesses, forcing the government to issue an emergency Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) to ensure they could stay afloat.
There are many reasons for this, including their limited access to credit and the fewer financial options they have relative to larger firms. Small businesses are often considered riskier for lenders because they struggle to deliver the types of quantifiable metrics large banks expect when evaluating creditworthiness. While small businesses have relied more on community banks, bank consolidations have further limited this source of funding.
One of the most pressing issues for small businesses is payment delays. Large buyers, such as Walmart and Procter & Gamble, commonly use “buy now pay later” practices with their suppliers, with payment delays between 30 and 120 days. When applying such practices, large buyers are essentially borrowing from small businesses, significantly increasing their working capital needs and lowering their available cash buffers. Indeed, survey evidence suggests that almost 70% of small businesses that rely on invoices report cash flow problems linked to these payment delays.
The challenges in accessing credit, combined with delayed payments make it hard for small businesses to maintain healthy cash buffers, increase their exposure to economic shocks, and limit their ability to make investments. Increased competition and innovation in payments could improve their long-lasting resiliency and opportunity for growth.
How Slow and Expensive Payments Hurt Small Businesses
Today, most U.S. consumer payments are made via credit cards, a trend that accelerated during the Covid-19 pandemic. While entirely invisible to customers, merchants pay fees — to card-issuing banks, card-network assessment, and payment processors — that can reach above 3% of the transaction value, and are likely to increase in the near future. Online transactions, mainly through marketplace platforms such as Amazon or Shopify, can be even more expensive. Additionally, it can take several days to actually receive the funds, which increases the working capital needs for small businesses.
This puts small businesses at a clear disadvantage, particularly given their thin margins, limited cash buffers, and expensive financing costs. While large businesses, such as Costco, can negotiate significantly lower fees when accepting digital payments, small businesses do not have much negotiating power. Right now, there are few alternatives to the major card networks, meaning that small businesses operating on small margins do not have a choice but to attempt to pass part of the fees to customers through higher prices, which lowers their ability to compete with deeper pocket rivals.
These problems are magnified when dealing with cross-border transfers, where fees and delays are incredibly high. As of the second quarter of 2021, the average cost of sending a cross-border payment from the United States was 5.41 percent, and SWIFT payments can take between one to five business days. Moreover, fees are unpredictable, and businesses may incur additional costs depending on the number of correspondent banks involved in the transaction. The complexity of the payment chain makes international payments also a lucrative target for scams and fraud, further increasing its costs.
How Blockchain Technology Can Help
To change this, we need a more open and competitive payments infrastructure. To achieve that, critically important public-sector efforts such as FedNow and CDBCs need to be combined with private sector innovation — including permissionless cryptocurrency networks. Public-sector efforts inevitably move at a glacial pace, and there is a real risk that they will be severely outpaced by innovation happening elsewhere, often within “walled gardens” that lock consumers and businesses into non-interoperable services.
But this does not have to be the case. The public sector can take advantage of the technical progress happening within the blockchain and cryptocurrency space to accelerate its journey towards real-time, low-cost payments.
An open payments system will drive competition, lower transaction fees, and unbundle the services that are currently part of all digital transactions — including those related to reversibility and chargebacks, intermediation, transaction risk assessment, and more — helping businesses pay only for what they actually need. Ideally, thanks to new forms of interoperability between digital wallets, banks, and legacy payment and card rails, small businesses would be able to do so without compromising which customers they can accept payments from. Moreover, transferring funds directly through a blockchain would benefit domestic and cross-border payments by reducing the number of intermediaries in the picture.
If this evolution of payments is successful, small businesses would experience not only lower costs but also faster access to funds. This would drastically improve their liquidity and cash buffers, and help them survive negative economic shocks and thrive.
By creating the right conditions for a truly open and interoperable protocol for money to emerge, very much like in the early days of the internet, the public sector can bring back competition to payments, and give small businesses much-needed choice.
Overdraft Protection: What It Is and Different Types
Overdraft fees can be a major drain on your finances. Some banks charge more than $30 per overdraft and potentially charge that fee multiple times per day if you keep making transactions that overdraw your checking account. If you want to avoid these fees, you can typically opt out of overdraft coverage with your bank. It can be useful, however, to set up overdraft protection instead of opting out so you don’t find yourself unable to pay for something urgent.
What is overdraft protection?
Overdraft protection is a checking account feature that some banks offer as a way to avoid overdraft fees. There are several types of overdraft protection, including overdraft protection transfers, overdraft lines of credit and grace periods to bring your account out of a negative balance. Some other overdraft coverage programs might be a combination of these features.
Before you opt out of overdraft protection altogether — which means your bank will decline any transaction that would result in an overdraft — consider how you might need overdraft coverage in an emergency. For example, maybe you’re using your debit card to pay for gas on a road trip. You need enough fuel to get home but don’t have enough money in your checking account. Instead of dealing with running out of gas, you may want to deal with an overdraft.
How does overdraft protection work?
Here are more details about the main types of overdraft protection that banks tend to provide.
Overdraft protection transfers. When a bank allows you to make an overdraft protection transfer, you can link a savings account, money market account or a second checking account at the same bank to your main checking account. If you overdraft your checking, your bank will take the overdrawn funds from your linked account to cover the cost of the transaction. Many banks allow this service for free, but some banks charge a fee.
Overdraft lines of credit. An overdraft line of credit functions like a credit card — but without the card. If you don’t have enough money in your account to cover a transaction, your bank will tap your overdraft line of credit to cover the remainder of the transaction. Lines of credit often come with steep annual interest rates that are broken up into smaller interest charges that you keep paying until the overdraft is paid back. Be aware that a line of credit could end up being expensive if you use this option to cover your overdrafts.
Grace periods. Some banks offer grace periods, so instead of immediately charging an overdraft fee, the bank will give you some time — typically a day or two — to return to a positive account balance after overdrafting. If you don’t do so within that time frame, your bank will charge you fees on any transactions that overdrafted your account.
Other coverage programs. Some banks are taking a new approach to overdraft protection by offering what’s basically a free line of credit with a longer grace period for customers to bring their account to a positive balance. One example, Chime’s SpotMe® program, allows customers to overdraft up to $200 with no fees. The customer’s next deposit is applied to their negative balance, and once the negative balance is repaid, customers can give Chime an optional tip to help keep the service “free.”
Chime says: “Chime is a financial technology company, not a bank. Banking services provided by, and debit card issued by, The Bancorp Bank or Stride Bank, N.A.; Members FDIC. Eligibility requirements and overdraft limits apply. SpotMe won’t cover non-debit card purchases, including ATM withdrawals, ACH transfers, Pay Friends transfers or Chime Checkbook transactions.”
4 ways to avoid overdraft fees
Set up low balance alerts. Many banks offer an alert option so you’ll get a text, email or push notification if your account drops below a certain threshold. These alerts can help you be more mindful about your balance so that you can put more money into your account or spend less to avoid an overdraft.
Opt out of overdraft coverage. If your bank doesn’t offer overdraft protection — or if its only options cost money — you may want to opt out of overdraft coverage, in which case your bank will decline any transactions that would bring your account into the negative. Keep in mind that this option could put you in a sticky situation if you’re in an emergency and can’t make an important purchase because you don’t have overdraft coverage.
Look for a bank that has a more generous overdraft policy. Many banks are reducing or eliminating their overdraft fees, so if overdrafts are an issue for you, do some comparison shopping to see if there are better options available.
Consider getting a prepaid debit card. Prepaid debit cards are similar to gift cards in that you can put a set amount of money on the card, and once you run out, you can load it with more money. The prepaid debit card can’t be overdrawn because there isn’t any additional money to draw from once its balance has been spent.
Startup Business Grants: Best Options and Alternative Funding Sources
Startup business grants can help small businesses grow without debt. But if you want free money to start a company, your time may be better spent elsewhere. Competition for small-business grants is fierce, and many awards require time in business — often at least six months.
Some grants are open to newer businesses or true startups. And even if you don’t qualify now, it can pay to know where to look for future funding. Here are the best grants for small-business startups, plus alternative sources of startup funding to consider.
How Much Do You Need?
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Government startup business grants and resources
Some government programs offer direct funding to startups looking for business grants, but those that don’t may point you in the right direction or help with applications:
Grants.gov. Government agencies routinely post new grant opportunities on this centralized database. If you see an opportunity relevant to your business idea, you can check if startups are eligible. Many of these grants deal with scientific or pharmaceutical research, though, so they may not be relevant to Main Street businesses.
Local governments. Lots of federal grants award funding to other governments, like states or cities, or to nonprofit economic development organizations. Those entities then offer grants to local businesses. Plugging into your local startup ecosystem can help you stay on top of these opportunities.
Small Business Development Centers. These resource centers funded by the Small Business Administration offer business coaching, education, technical support and networking opportunities. They may also be able to help you apply for small-business grants, develop a business plan and level up your business in other ways.
Minority Business Development Agency Centers. The MBDA, which is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, operates small-business support centers similar to SBDCs. The MBDA doesn’t give grants to businesses directly, but these centers can connect you with grant organizations, help you prepare applications and secure other types of business financing.
Local startup business grants
Some local business incubators or accelerators offer business grants or pitch competitions with cash prizes. To find these institutions near you, do an online search for “Your City business incubator.”
Even if you don’t see a grant program, sign up for their email newsletter or follow them on social media. Like SBDCs and MBDAs, business incubators often provide business coaching, courses and lectures that can help you develop your business idea.
Startup business grants from companies and nonprofits
Lots of corporations and large nonprofits, like the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, organize grant competitions. Some national opportunities include:
iFundWomen. iFundWomen partners with other corporations to administer business grants. You can fill out a universal application to receive automatic notifications when you’re eligible to apply for a grant.
Amber Grant for Women. WomensNet gives two $10,000 Amber Grants each month and two $25,000 grants annually. Filling out one application makes you eligible for all Amber Grants. To qualify, businesses must be at lesat 50% women-owned and based in the U.S. or Canada.
National Association for the Self-Employed. Join NASE, and you can apply for quarterly Growth Grant opportunities. There are no time-in-business requirements for these grants of up to $4,000, but you’ll need to provide details about how you plan to use the grant and how it will help your business grow.
FedEx Small Business Grant Contest. This annual competition awards grants to small-business owners in a variety of industries. You can sign up to receive an email when each application period opens. To be eligible, you’ll need to have been selling your product or service for at least six months. Be mindful, though, that each grant cycle receives thousands of applications.
Fast Break for Small Business. This grant program is funded by LegalZoom, the NBA, WNBA and NBA G League and administered by Accion Opportunity Fund. You can win a $10,000 business grant plus free LegalZoom services. Applications open during the NBA season, which runs from fall to early summer each year.
Alternative funding sources for startups
New businesses likely won’t be able to rely on startup business grants for working capital. The following financing sources may help accelerate your growth or get your startup off the ground:
SBA microloans offer up to $50,000 to help your business launch or expand. The average microloan is around $13,000, according to the SBA.
The SBA issues microloans through intermediary lenders, usually nonprofit financial institutions and economic development organizations, all of which have different requirements. You can use the SBA’s website to find a lender in your state.
Friends and family
Asking friends and family to invest in your business may seem daunting, but it’s very common. Make sure you define whether each person’s money is a loan and, if so, when and how you’ll pay it back. Put an agreement in writing if possible.
Business credit cards
Business credit cards can help you manage startup expenses while your cash flow is still unsteady. You can qualify for a business credit card with your personal credit score and some general information about your business, like your business name and industry.
You’ll probably need to sign a personal guarantee, though, which is a promise that you’ll pay back the debt if your business can’t.
If your business has a dedicated customer base, they can help fund you via crowdfunding. Usually businesses offer something in exchange, like debt notes, equity shares or access to an exclusive event.
There are lots of different crowdfunding platforms that offer different terms, so look around to find the model that works best for you.
Why Is Crypto Down?
For crypto investors, any given day can feel like a roller coaster ride. The price of Bitcoin, for instance, regularly goes up or down by more than 5% in a day. In contrast, stock indices like the S&P 500 or Dow Jones Industrial Average rarely see swings that large.
During a bad turn for digital assets, it’s natural to wonder what caused the price drop — and what you can learn from it. Of course, each day on the market may bring a different answer for why crypto is down (or up), but understanding the basic mechanics behind crypto’s volatility can help you make better decisions.
Here are some of the many possible reasons behind big drops in prices:
Low liquidity. If a cryptocurrency is trading at lower-than-usual volumes, weird things can happen, like a single large trade throwing off the market by swinging prices closer to the value of that transaction.
Speculative trading dries up. High-risk trading with hopes of quick returns can end badly when momentum wanes.
Loss of trust. Trust in a product is a price driver. If it evaporates, prices can, too. In addition, because crypto is a novel asset class based on relatively new technology, signs of trouble such as cyberattacks or product failures can adversely affect the overall market.
Whatever the reason behind the crypto price trends of a single day, it’s important to remember that volatility has been a defining part of crypto investing.
Even Bitcoin.org, the website started by Satoshi Nakamoto to help explain Bitcoin, doesn’t shy away from that fact when it states: “relatively small events, trades, or business activities can significantly affect the price.”
Making sense of the bigger picture
In addition to dropping a lot in one day, cryptocurrencies are vulnerable to macroeconomic factors that can push down values for weeks or months.
In November 2021, a price decline turned into a sustained nosedive that continued until midway through 2022, when prices stabilized far below their lofty former highs.
Crypto’s drop coincided with price declines in many asset classes, but the declines in crypto were far steeper. For example, the S&P 500 dropped around 25% but has clawed back about half of those losses. Meanwhile, Bitcoin is still worth less than half of what it was before Thanksgiving 2021.
When explaining crypto’s drop, sometimes called “crypto winter,” experts point to the same root cause: Investors were looking to offload risky assets of all types amid economic uncertainty.
Adam Grealish, director of investment solutions and GM of advisory at Altruist, a software platform for financial advisors, said the scale of these big declines in crypto prices undercuts “the story about it being digital gold and a place where folks are moving to protect wealth.”
“While there’s an interesting theoretical argument for it, empirically it trades much more like a risky, high-volatility asset,” Grealish said.
The macroeconomic environment in 2022 hasn’t been kind to risky assets.
Red-hot inflation has driven prices up. In response, the Federal Reserve raised rates, which lifted the interest charged for all types of loans. When money is more expensive, stocks and other assets can suffer. As a result, investors tend to flee riskier investments, including crypto.
While this is bad news for investors and customers alike, Greg King, founder and CEO of crypto investment firm Osprey Funds, says this is part of an evolutionary process that will improve the industry in the long run.
“Our view is that it’s a positive in cleaning out some of the dead wood there,” he says. “All of the companies that went under that were in the press were centralized operations with poor risk management.”
It’s impossible to know what course the crypto market could take from here.
If interest in cryptocurrency investing recovers to the levels seen in 2021, that could benefit people willing to weather the tough times. But don’t confuse a volatile asset for a basketball; only with the latter can you expect a bounce back because it fell. Volatility means that prices could still go in either direction.